Applications of varved records are discussed with special reference to advances since the 1980s.
These span fields like calibrating radiometric dating methods, reconstructing past changes of the Earth's magnetic field or detecting fluctuations in solar forcing.
Individual (sub)laminae in varved lake sediments typically express contrasting colours, always differ in terms of their organic, chemical and/or mineralogical compositions, and often also differ with regard to grain-size.
Various predominating climatic and depositional conditions may result in clastic, biogenic or endogenic (incl. To reliably establish a varve chronology, the annual character of laminations needs to be determined and verified in a multidisciplinary fashion.
Sources and influences of possible errors in varve chronologies are best determined and constrained by repeated varve counts, and by including radioisotopes and correlation with historically documented events.
A well-established varve chronology greatly enhances the scientific value of laminated limnic archives by securely anchoring the wealth of multi-proxy palaeoenvironmental information in the form of time-series for multidisciplinary investigations.
Sixteen percent of respondents reported IPV and 13.5 % reported RC in the past 3 months.
This research was supported by Award Number K23HD059916 (PI: Temple) from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) and 2012-WG-BX-0005 (PI: Temple) from the National Institute of Justice (NIJ). These records are necessary to extend temporally limited instrumental records back in time.As such they have societal relevance with regard to risk assessments related to natural hazards arising from e.g. Bullying is a complex social dynamic that can best be understood by using various theoretical frameworks.The current article uses social capital theory, dominance theory, the theory of humiliation, and organizational culture theory to better understand the motivations behind bullying behavior, bullying’s negative effects on victims, and how school culture and climate play a role in the prevalence of bullying.