Imagine that a German widget manufacturer and an American customer are negotiating an order. "This corroboration requirement for testimony by an interested party is based on the sometimes unreliable nature of oral testimony, due to the forgetfulness of witnesses, their liability to mistakes, their proneness to recollect things as the party calling them would have them recollect them, aside from the temptation to actual perjury." Trans Web LLC v. See, e.g.: At all times during the Confidentiality-Obligation Period, the Receiving Party must not disclose, use, or copy Confidential Information, in whole or in part, except as expressly provided in the Agreement. A receiving party likely would not want to take on the higher burden of entering into a fiduciary relationship with the disclosing party.
EXAMPLE: a company signs a master purchase agreement. My guess is that they'll be more likely to remember to do that than to research whether any previously-negotiated master agreement still applies. (A jury, though, held the customer liable for damages for breaching a subsequent [oral? (c) For the avoidance of doubt, this section 188.8.131.52 does not authorize any disclosure Confidential Information that does not qualify as a Compulsory Legal Demand (for example, a discretionary filing under the securities laws). Subdivisions (a)(1)(A) through (a)(1)(D) have in mind the (U. For example, in 2015 the Securities and Exchange Commission went after well-known government contractor KBR for this; the contractor agreed to the entry of a cease-and-desist order and to pay 0,000 settlement.Also includes links to selected real-world contract forms. The INCOTERMS® are "a series of pre-defined commercial terms published by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) [that are] widely used in international commercial transactions …. the purpose of corroboration [is] to prevent fraud, by providing independent confirmation of the [witness's] testimony." See Sandt Technology, Ltd. Resco Metal & Plastics Corp., 264 F.3d 1344, 1350 (Fed. 2001) (affirming relevant part of summary judgment; internal quotation marks and citation omitted). (b) Except as otherwise stated below, for information to be considered Confidential Information, the information must: (1) be set forth (or summarized) in tangible form (including for example an electronic storage device); and (2) be marked with a reasonably-prominent, visually-readable notice such as (for example) "Confidential information of [name]" or "Subject to NDA." In assessing whether a disclosing party in fact maintained particular information in confidence, a court very likely will give significant weight to whether the disclosing party caused the information to be marked as confidential. In many situations, these "standard" precautions are likely to satisfy the disclosing party's desires, but for some types of Confidential Information, a disclosing party might want to insist on special precautions — especially in the era of criminal hackers, and even state actors, breaking into insufficiently-secure computer systems and stealing valuable information, such as happened to Sony Pictures Entertainment, allegedly at the hands of North Korea, and to Home Depot, which booked a charge of 1 million after a 2014 theft of customers' credit-card data. (1) will not waive or otherwise affect the Disclosing Party's ability to enforce its other intellectual-property rights (for example, copyrights and patents) against the Receiving Party except to the extent, if any, that the parties expressly agree otherwise in writing; and (2) will not affect any obligation of confidentiality imposed by law.Free for (limited) use under a Creative Commons license. [for] the transportation and delivery of goods." (Wikipedia.com). Another useful patent-law analogy might the requirement of corroboration to support an assertion that an issued patent is invalid due to prior public use. In the Seventh Circuit's Fail-Safe case, the court pointedly noted that the plaintiff had not marked its information as confidential; the court affirmed the district court's summary judgment dismissing the plaintiff's claim of misappropriation. A disclosing party should always insist on imposing confidentiality obligations on a receiving party; otherwise, a court is likely to hold hold that the disclosing party had failed to make reasonable efforts to protect its confidential information. For the avoidance of doubt, the Receiving Party's undertaking of the obligations of the Agreement concerning Confidential Information is not intended and should not be interpreted as in itself establishing a confidential‑ or fiduciary relationship between the parties.These are the general rules of corporate and contract law, but they come with exceptions, of course. See also: Contract drafters typically include each party's type of organization and the jurisdiction in which it's organized — for example, "ABC Corporation, a Delaware corporation" — as a way of establishing diversity jurisdiction (a U. concept that might or might not be applicable) and personal jurisdiction as well as venue. To save negotiation time, this provision simply goes ahead and pre-authorizes some of those particular categories of use.Northbound tries to create one new exception and invokes two established ones. Including the jurisdiction can simplify a litigator's task of "proving up" the necessary facts: If a contract signed by ABC Corporation recites that ABC is a corporation, for example, an opposing party generally won't have to prove that fact, because ABC will usually be deemed to have conceded it in advance. Acknowledgement Definition and its field notes.) It's useful to put the parties' initial addresses for notice in the preamble. A receiving party might want to state explicitly that that certain specified uses are authorized.